Posts Tagged ‘junit5’

Get know what you can expect from Spock 2.0 M2 (based on JUnit 5), how to migrate to it in Gradle and Maven, and why it is important to report spotted problems :).

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Important note. I definitely do not encourage you to migrate your real-life project to Spock 2.0 M1 for good! This is the first (pre-)release of 2.x with not finalized API, intended to gather user feedback related to internal Spock migration to JUnit Platform.

This blog post arose to try to encourage you to make a test migration of your projects to Spock 2.0, see what started to fail, fix it (if caused by your tests) or report it (if it is a regression in Spock itself). As a result – at the Spock side – it will be possible to improve the code base before Milestone 2. The benefit for you – in addition to contribution to the FOSS project :-) – will be awareness of required changes (kept in a side branch) and readiness to migration once Spock 2.0 is more mature.

I plan to update this blog post when the next Spock 2 versions are available.

Updated 2020-02-10 to cover Spock 2.0 M2 with a dedicated Groovy 3 support.

Spock 2 + JUnit 5

Powered by JUnit Platform

The main change in Spock 2.0 M1 is migration to JUnit 5 (precisely speaking to execute tests with JUnit Platform 1.5, part of JUnit 5 instead of the JUnit 4 runner API). This is very convenient as Spock tests should be automatically recognized and executed everywhere the JUnit Platform is supported (IDEs, build tools, quality tools, etc.). In addition, the features provided by the platform itself (such as parallel test execution) should be (eventually) available also for Spock.

Gradle

To bring Spock 2 to a Gradle project it is needed to bump the Spock version:

testImplementation('org.spockframework:spock-core:2.0-M2-groovy-2.5')

and activate tests execution by JUnit Platform:

test {
    useJUnitPlatform()
}

Update 20200218. It is enough, but as Tomek Przybysz reminded in his comment, Gradle by default doesn’t fail if not tests are found. It may lead to a situation when after making that switch a build finished successfully, giving a false sense of security, while there are no tests executed at all.
It is a known issue in Gradle, not only limited to Spock. As a woraround the aforementioned configuration might be extended to:

test {
    useJUnitPlatform()

    afterSuite { desc, result ->
        if (!desc.parent) {
            if (result.testCount == 0) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("No tests were found. Failing the build")
            }
        }
    }
}

Maven

With Maven on the other hand, it is still required to switch to a never Spock version:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.spockframework</groupId>
  <artifactId>spock-core</artifactId>
  <version>2.0-M2-groovy-2.5</version>
  <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

but that is all. The Surefire plugin (if you use version 3.0.0+) executes JUnit Platform tests by default, if junit-platform-engine (a transitive dependency of Spock 2) is found.

The minimal working project for Gradle i Maven is available from GitHub.

Other changes

Having such big change as migration to JUnit Platform, number of other changes in Spock 2.0 M1 is limited, to make finding a reason of potential regressions a little bit easier. As a side effects of the migration itself, the required Java version is 8.

In addition, all parameterized tests are (finally) “unrolled” automatically. That is great, however, currently there is no way to “roll” particular tests, as known from spock-global-unroll for Spock 1.x.

Some other changes (such as temporarily disabled SpockReportingExtension) can be found in the release notes.

More (possibly breaking) changes are expected to be merged into Milestone 2.

Issue with JUnit 4 rules

The tests using JUnit 4 @Rules (or @ClassRules) are expected to fail with an error message suggesting that requested objects were not created/initialized before a test (e.g. NullPointerException or IllegalStateException: the temporary folder has not yet been created) or were not verified/cleaned up after it (e.g. soft assertions from AssertJ). The Rules API is no longer supported by JUnit Platform. However, to make the migration easier (@TemporaryFolder is probably very often used in Spock-based integration tests), there is a dedicated spock-junit4 which internally wraps JUnit 4 rules into the Spock extensions and executes it in the Spock’s lifecycle. As it is implemented as a global extension, the only required thing to add is another dependency. In Gradle:

testImplementation 'org.spockframework:spock-junit4:2.0-M2-groovy-2.5'

or in Maven:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.spockframework</groupId>
    <artifactId>spock-junit4</artifactId>
    <version>2.0-M2-groovy-2.5</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

That makes migration easier, but it is good to think about a switch to native Spock counterpart, if available/feasible.

Groovy 3 support

Updated 2020-02-10. The whole Groovy 3 section was added to cover changes in Spock 2.0 Milestone 2.

After my complains about runtime failure when Spock 2.0 M1 is used with Groovy 3.0, I rolled up my sleeves to check how hard would it be to provide that support. It took me some time, however, after after 23 (multiple times rebased) commits, constructive feedback from other Spock contributors and fruitful discussion with the Groovy developers, the support for Groovy 3 has been merged and is available as the main feature of Spock 2.0 M2, released right after Groovy 3.0.0 final.

To use Spock 2.0 M2 with Groovy 3 it is enough to just use the spock-*-2.0-M1 artifacts with the -groovy-3.0 suffix.

It is worth noting that Groovy 3 is not backward compatible with Groovy 2. To keep one Spock codebase, there is a layer of abstraction in Spock to allow to build (and use) the project with both Groovy 2 and 3. As a result, an extra artifact spock-groovy2-compat is (automatically) used in projects with Groovy 2. It is very important to do not mix the spock-*-2.x-groovy-2.5 artifacts with the groovy-*-3.x artifacts on a classpath. This may result in weird runtime errors.

I’m really happy that developers can immediately start testing the new Groovy 3.0.0 with Spock 2.0-M2 in their projects. In addition, as Spock is quite important (and low level) project in the Groovy ecosystem, it was nice to confirm that Groovy 3 works properly with it (and to report – along the way – a few minor detected issues to make Groovy even better ;-) ).

Other issues and limitations

Updated 2020-02-10. This section originally refereed to limitations of Spock 2.0 M1. Milestone 2 supports Groovy 3.

Spock 2.0 M1 is compiled and tested only with Groovy 2.5.8. As of M1, execution with Groovy 3.0 is currently blocked at runtime. Unfortunately, instead of a clear error message about incompatible Groovy version there is only a very cryptic error message:

Could not instantiate global transform class org.spockframework.compiler.SpockTransform specified at
jar:file:/.../spock-core-2.0-M1-groovy-2.5.jar!/META-INF/services/org.codehaus.groovy.transform.ASTTransformation
because of exception java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException

It is already reported and should be enhanced by M2.

Sadly, the limitation to Groovy 2.5 only, reduces potential feedback from people experimenting with Groovy 3 which is pretty close to a stable version (RC2 as of 2019/2020). It’s especially inconvenient as many Spock tests just work with Groovy 3 (of course there are some corner cases). There is a chance that Spock 2 before getting final will be adjusted to changes in Groovy 3 or at least the aforementioned hard limitation will be lifted. In the meantime, it is required to test Groovy 3 support with the snapshot version – 2.0-groovy-2.5-SNAPSHOT (which has that check disabled).

Summary

The action to do after reading this post is simple. Try to temporarily play with Spock 2.0 M2 in your projects and report any spotted issues, to help make Spock 2.0 even better :).

Starting with the version 2.17.0 Mockito provides the official (built-in) support for managing a mocking life cycle if JUnit 5 is used.

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Getting started

To take advantage of the integration, the Mockito’s mockito-junit-jupiter dependency is required to be added next to the JUnit 5’s junit-platform-engine one (see below for details).

After that, the new Mockito extension MockitoExtension for JUnit 5 has to be enabled. And that’s enough. All the Mockito annotation should automatically start to work.

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;  //do not confuse with 'org.junit.Test'!
//other imports
import org.mockito.junit.jupiter.MockitoExtension;

@ExtendWith(MockitoExtension.class)
class SpaceShipJUnit5Test {

    @InjectMocks
    private SpaceShip spaceShip;

    @Mock
    private TacticalStation tacticalStation;

    @Mock
    private OperationsStation operationsStation;

    @Test
    void shouldInjectMocks() {
        assertThat(spaceShip).isNotNull();
        assertThat(tacticalStation).isNotNull();
        assertThat(operationsStation).isNotNull();
        assertThat(spaceShip.getTacticalStation()).isSameAs(tacticalStation);
        assertThat(spaceShip.getOperationsStation()).isSameAs(operationsStation);
    }
}

It’s nice that both a test class and test methods don’t need to be public anymore.

Please note. Having also JUnit 4 on a classpath (e.g. via junit-vintage-engine) for the “legacy” part of tests it is important to do not confuse org.junit.jupiter.api.Test with the old one org.junit.Test. It will not work.

Stubbing and verification

If for some reasons you are not a fan of AssertJ (although, I encourage you to at least give it a try) JUnit 5 provides a native assertion assertThrows (which is very similar to assertThatThrownBy() from AssertJ). It provides a meaningful error message in a case of an assertion failure.

@Test
void shouldMockSomething() {
    //given
    willThrow(SelfCheckException.class).given(tacticalStation).doSelfCheck();   //void method "given..will" not "when..then" cannot be used
    //when
    Executable e = () -> spaceShip.doSelfCheck();
    //then
    assertThrows(SelfCheckException.class, e);
}

I were not myself if I would not mention here that leveraging support for default methods in interfaces available in AssertJ and mockito-java8 a lot of static imports can be made redundant.

@ExtendWith(MockitoExtension.class)
class SpaceShipJUnit5Test implements WithAssertions, WithBDDMockito {
    ...
}

Tweaking default behavior

It also worth to point our that using the JUnit 5 extension Mockito by default works in the “strict mode”. It means that – for example – unneeded stubbing will fail the test. While very often it is a code smell, there are some cases where that test construction is desired. To change the default behavior an @MockitoSettings annotation can be used.

@ExtendWith(MockitoExtension.class)
@MockitoSettings(strictness = Strictness.WARN)
class SpaceShipJUnitAdvTest implements WithAssertions, WithBDDMockito {
    ....
}

Dependencies

As I already mentioned, to start using it is required to add a Mockito’s mockito-junit-jupiter dependency next to a JUnit 5’s junit-platform-engine one. In a Gradle build it could look like:

dependencies {
    testCompile 'org.junit.vintage:junit-platform-engine:5.1.0'
    testCompile 'org.mockito:mockito-junit-jupiter:2.17.2'  //mockito-core is implicitly added

    testCompile 'org.junit.vintage:junit-vintage-engine:5.1.0'  //for JUnit 4.12 test execution, if needed
    testCompile 'org.assertj:assertj-core:3.9.1'    //if you like it (you should ;) )
}

Please note. Due to a bug with injecting mocks via constructor into final fields that I have found writing this blog post, it is recommended to use at least version 2.17.2 instead of 2.17.0. That “development” version is not available in the Maven Central and the extra Bintray repository has to be added.

repositories {
    mavenCentral()
    maven { url "https://dl.bintray.com/mockito/maven" }    //for development versions of Mockito
}

In addition, it would be a waste to do not use a brand new native support for JUnit 5 test execution in Gradle 4.6+.

test {
    useJUnitPlatform()
}

IntelliJ IDEA has provided JUnit support since 2016.2 (JUnit 5 Milestone 2 at that time). Eclipse Oxygen also seems to add support for JUnit 5 recently.

mockito-junit5-idea-results

Summary

It is really nice to have a native support for JUnit 5 in Mockito. Not getting ahead there is ongoing work to make it even better.
The feature has been implemented by Christian Schwarz and polished by Tim van der Lippe with great assist from a few other people.

The source code is available from GitHub.

Btw, are you wondering how JUnit 5 compares with Spock? I will be talking about that at GeeCON 2018.

Geecon logo